Q: What are the main aspects of the new agreement? These provisions send a clear signal to countries. While there is some flexibility for governments to define climate change policies based on their priorities and development capabilities, the overall trajectory of emissions would require that all increase their ambitions over time and eventually offset their emissions and distances. In other words, the direction of travel defined by the Paris Agreement foresees a future in which the atmosphere does not see additional greenhouse gas emissions and, therefore, all countries must work in this direction. In this context, long-term strategies are becoming an essential tool in the fight against climate change. Efforts to achieve this goal have reached important milestones such as the Kyoto Protocol and, more recently, the Paris Agreement. Governments have agreed on concrete measures and timelines to reduce emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change. They also agreed to cooperate in the areas of finance, technology and capacity building to intensify efforts over time. The temperature target reflects above all a vision of society that we want for the future. One of the objectives is to design our economic system so that the improvement of our quality of life is not hindered by the negative effects on our climate. In the light of science, this vision implies a major transformation. This forces us to rethink how we produce, use and use energy; how we produce and build; and how we manage our land and ecosystems. If net global greenhouse gas emissions are to reach zero by the end of this century, we must ensure that our energy and production systems are neutral in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, so that there is at least a balance between human-caused greenhouse gas emissions and the elimination of emissions from our country and healthy natural ecosystems.

The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on country-by-country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions.

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