In the public sector, the agreements apply to all workers, but in the private sector they normally apply only to at least 10% of employees, even if the company itself is part of an employers` organization that has signed the agreement. Nor is there a general mechanism to extend collective agreements to an entire sector, as is the case in some EU Member States. The only case where parts of a collective agreement can be extended beyond the presence of trade unions is that a sector has a considerable number of foreign workers employed under less favourable conditions than their Norwegian counterparts. Under the law adopted in 1993, a joint board of directors, composed of representatives of the trade unions and the employers` organization, as well as independent members, hears requests for extension and takes a decision. Initially, this provision was hardly used. However, migration from Central and Eastern Europe to Norway since 2004 has led to the renewal of some agreements in this way. There are three ways for a collective agreement to bind an employer in Finland: no. There are no collective agreements of general application for certain sectors in Denmark. Most collective agreements are concluded between a union and an employers` organization or a single employer.

In the absence of a collective agreement, the employer is free to agree in an individual contract on all the conditions usually provided for in collective agreements, provided that these conditions are in conformity with the law. Mediation plays an important role in collective bargaining in Norway. If the negotiators do not reach an agreement, the case must be referred to a mediator empowered to postpone trade union actions for up to 14 days (21 to the central government). Mediation usually leads to new negotiations, with the final compromise, if reached, being put to a vote by MEPs. The government also has the power to intervene in litigation and to impose binding arbitration when it deems it necessary, and this power has been invoked most often in disputes involving the public sector and the oil industry, but also in other sectors. In the most common collective agreements (LO and NHO), the regime consists of a three-stage hierarchy; The agreement fills some gaps in AFP`s current system. .

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